Answers to Excercises

 

Answers: Lesson 1

#4
  1. You stand and I speak.
  2. He stands and you speak.
  3. I speak and you stand.
  4. I stand and he speaks.
  5. You speak and I stand.
  6. I stand and speak.
#5
  1. tiṣṭhati vadāmi ca
  2. tiṣṭhasi vadati ca
  3. vdadasi tiṣṭhāmi ca
  4. vadasi tiṣṭhati ca
  5. tiṣṭhāmi vadati ca
  6. vadāmi tiṣṭhasi ca
 

Answers: Lesson 2

#3
  1. They (plural) stand and they (two) speak.
  2. You (two) stand and we (two) speak.
  3. We (plural) speak and they (two) stand.
  4. You (singular) stand and you (two) speak.
  5. You (plural) stand and you (two) speak.
  6. They (two) speak a we (plural) stand.
  7. He stands and they (plural) speak.
  8. You (singular) stand and we (two) speak.
#4
  1. tiṣṭhāvaḥ vadatha ca
  2. vadathaḥ tiṣṭhanti ca
  3. tiṣṭhataḥ vadathaḥ ca
  4. tiṣṭhanti vadāmi ca
  5. tiṣṭhati vadatha ca
  6. vadataḥ tiṣṭhati ca
  7. tiṣṭhāmaḥ vadathaḥ ca
  8. vadatha tiṣṭhasi ca
 

Answers: Lesson 3

#3
  1. The horse leads the man.
  2. The man and horses (two) are standing.
  3. The horses (two) lead the man to the trees (plural).
  4. The horse stands and the man speaks.
  5. The man and the horse are leading.
  6. We (plural) lead the men (two) to the trees (pural).
#4
  1. naraḥ aśvam nayate
  2. aśvau naram nayete
  3. narāḥ vadanti nayante ca
  4. aśvaḥ naram vṛkṣam nayate
  5. vṛkṣaḥ aśvaḥ ca tiṣṭhataḥ
  6. narāḥ aśvān nayante
 

Answers: Lesson 4

#4
  1. The horse carries the man to the tree.
  2. The man goes to the tree by horse.
  3. You (plural) take the trees (plural) from the horse.
  4. The horse carries the tree for the man.
  5. The man and the horse go from the tree.
  6. He leads the horse from the tree for the man.
#5
  1. aśvena gacchati
  2. aśvam narāya nayethe
  3. vṛkṣān aśvaiḥ vahanti
  4. aśvān vṛkṣāt gacchāmaḥ
  5. vṛkṣam narāt aśvena
  6. aśvāḥ naram vṛkṣebhyaḥ vahanti
 

Answers: Lesson 5

#4
  1. O man, you are standing on the horse.
  2. The horses (plural) of the men (plural) are standing.
  3. The man takes the tree from the horse.
  4. The man’s horses (plural) are standing among the trees (plural).
  5. The horses (two) carry the trees (plural) for the man.
  6. He takes the man from the tree by horse.
  7. The horse goes to the man from the tree.
  8. He stands on the horse and speaks.
#5
  1. aśvayoḥ tiṣṭhati
  2. vṛkṣeṣu naraḥ aśvaḥ ca tiṣṭhataḥ
  3. narayoḥ vṛkṣāḥ tiṣṭhanti
  4. narasya aśvaḥ vṛkṣam vahataḥ
  5. aśvau naram vṛkṣam vahataḥ
  6. (he) aśva vṛkṣam narāya vahasi
  7. narasya aśvān vṛkṣāt labhate
  8. naram aśvam vṛkṣāt vahathaḥ
 

Answers: Lesson 6

#3
  1. The girl leads the horse to the tree for fruit.
  2. The horse carries the man and the girl to the tree.
  3. The man’s horse takes the fruit from the girl.
  4. The men (two) take the fruit (plural) of the trees (plural) to the horse.
  5. The girls (plural) lead the men (plural) to the fruit (plural) by horse.
  6. The girls (two) stand among the trees and speak.
  7. I go to the trees (two) and take the fruit (plural).
  8. The man carries the fruit (two) from the tree for the girl.
  9. The girls (two) take the fruit (plural) from the man’s tree.
  10. The girl and the man carry the tree to the horse.
#4
  1. naraḥ tiṣṭhati ca bālā vadati
  2. aśvam nayethe ca phalam labhe
  3. naraḥ bālā ca vṛkṣeṣu aśvābhyām gacchataḥ (assume two horses)
  4. naram bālām ca aśvam vṛkṣāt labhāvahe
  5. naraḥ vṛkṣān aśvena phalebhyaḥ gacchati
  6. bālā phale vṛkṣāt aśvebhyaḥ labhate
  7. aśvaḥ vṛkṣam bālām narāya vahati
  8. naraḥ aśvam phalena nayate
  9. aśvaḥ phalāni bālāḥ narāya vahati
  10. bāle aśve tiṣṭhataḥ ca phalam vṛkṣāt labhete
 

Answers: Lesson 7

#5
  1. bālām vṛkṣāt narasya aśvam vahāvaḥ
  2. naraḥ bālā ca tiṣṭhataḥ vadataḥ ca
  3. aśvaḥ vṛkṣasya phale bālābhyaḥ labhate
  4. bālāyāḥ aśvaḥ phalāni narāya vahati
  5. narāḥ vṛkṣasya phalam bālāyai labhante
  6. narasya bālā aśvān vṛkṣān nayate
#6
  1. We (two) carry the girl from the tree to the man’s horse.
  2. The man and the girl stand and talk.
  3. The horse takes the tree’s fruit (two) from / for the girls (plural).
  4. The girl’s horse carries the fruit (plural) for the man.
  5. The man takes the fruite (singular) of the tree for the girl.
  6. The man’s girl leads the horses (plural) to the trees (plural).
#7
  1. phalāni vṛkṣāt aśvena vahatha
  2. bālāyāḥ aśvau phalāni naram labhete
  3. aśvam vṛkṣasya phalāni nayethe
  4. naraḥ vṛkṣam aśvāt bālāyai labhate
  5. bālā aśvaḥ ca vṛkṣesu phalebhyaḥ gacchataḥ
  6. aśvaḥ vṛkṣān narebhyaḥ vahanti
#8
  • फलानि वृक्षात् अश्वेन वहथ । १ ॥
  • बालायाः अश्वौ फलानि नरम् लभेते । २ ॥
  • अश्वम् वृक्षस्य फलानि नयेथे । ३ ॥
  • नरः वृक्षम् अश्वात् बालायै लभते । ४ ॥
  • बाला अश्वः च वृक्षेसु फलेभ्यः गच्छतः । ५ ॥
  • अश्वः वृक्षान् नरेभ्यः वहन्ति । ६ ॥
 

Answers: Lesson 8

#3
  1. bālā agnim sundarāt narāt gacchati
  2. naraḥ alpam vṛkṣam bālām agnaye śīghram labhate
  3. sundarī bālā alpam aśvam nadīm nayate
  4. narau sundarāṇi phalāni alpāt vṛkṣāt labhete
  5. guravaḥ alpam sundaram aśvam nadyau nayante
  6. alpaḥ vṛkṣaḥ sundare agnau riṣṭhati
#4
  1. The girl goes to the fire from the handsome man.
  2. The man quickly takes the small tree to the girl for fire.
  3. The beautiful girl leads the small horse to the river.
  4. The men (two) take the beautiful fruit from the small tree.
  5. The teachers (plural) lead the small beautiful horse to the rivers (two).
  6. The small tree stands in the beautiful fire.
#5
  1. narasya guruḥ nadīm aśvena gacchati
  2. bālā alpam phalam narasya gurum vahati
  3. bālāyāḥ guruḥ alpāyām nadyām tiṣṭhati
  4. guroḥ bālā sundare aśve tiṣṭhati
  5. sundarī bālā naram alpam gurum śīghram nayate
  6. guruḥ alpasya vṛkṣasya sundareṣu phaleṣu tiṣṭhati
#6
  • नरस्य गुरुः नदीम् अश्वेन गच्छति । १ ॥
  • बाला अल्पम् फलम् नरस्य गुरुम् वहति । २ ॥
  • बालायाः गुरुः अल्पायाम् नद्याम् तिष्ठति । ३ ॥
  • गुरोः बाला सुन्दरे अश्वे तिष्ठति । ४ ॥
  • सुन्दरी बाला नरम् अल्पम् गुरुम् शीघ्रम् नयते । ५ ॥
  • गुरुः अल्पस्य वृक्षस्य सुन्दरेषु फलेषु तिष्ठति । ६ ॥
 

Answers: Lesson 9

#3
  1. naraḥ phalāni labhate iti bāle vadataḥ
  2. he guro bāle nayase iti alpaḥ naraḥ vadati
  3. aśvaḥ vṛkṣasya phalāni bālāyai vahati
  4. phalam vṛkṣāyāt aśvena narāya vahataḥ
  5. vṛkṣam alpau agnī aśvaiḥ śīghram vahāmi
  6. nadī alpam vṛkṣam sundarīm bālām vahati
#4
  1. “The man is taking the fruit (plural)”, the girls (two) say.
  2. “O teacher, you are leading the (two) girls”, the small man says.
  3. The horse carries the fruit (plural) of the tree for the girl.
  4. They (two) carry the fruit (singular) from the tree by horse for the man.
  5. I quickly carry the tree to the small fires (two) by horse (plural).
  6. The river carries the small tree to the beautiful girl.
#5
  1. phalāni aśvam labhe iti bālā gurum vadati
  2. vṛkṣam nadīm vahāmi iti naraḥ bālām vadati
  3. bālāyāḥ phale naram śīghram labhadhve
  4. phalāni bālāyāḥ vṛkṣāt labhāvahe
  5. naraḥ bālā ca sundaram gurum nadyā gacchataḥ
  6. sundarī bālā aśvam alpān vṛkṣān phalebhyaḥ nayate
#6
  • फलानि अश्वम् लभे इति बाला गुरुम् वदति । १ ॥
  • वृक्षम् नदीम् वहामि इति नरः बालाम् वदति । २ ॥
  • बालायाः फले नरम् शीघ्रम् लभध्वे । ३ ॥
  • फलानि बालायाः वृक्षात् लभावहे । ४ ॥
  • नरः बाला च सुन्दरम् गुरुम् नद्या गच्छतः । ५ ॥
  • सुन्दरी बाला अश्वम् अल्पान् वृक्षान् फलेभ्यः नयते । ६ ॥
 

Answers: Lesson 10

#3
  1. व्यञ्जन
  2. सत्यानन्द
  3. साध्वीश
  4. कर्तॄकार
  5. अत्रैव
  6. भ्वादि
  7. आनन्दैतद्
  8. कपीन्द्र
  9. महर्षि or महऋषि
  10. हरेऽथ
  11. शान्त्यमृतम्
  12. नदीश
  13. महेश्वर
  14. मायैव
  15. हस्तेऽस्ति
  16. देव्यानन्द
  17. विष्ण आस्य
  18. परमात्मन्
  19. नेति
  20. पित्रानन्द
  21. पावकः
  22. मध्वाचार्य
  23. महेन्द्र
  24. कर्त्रानन्द
  25. केयम्
  26. नैव
  27. शिवोदनम्
  28. गुर्वेकत्वम्
  29. परमेश्वर
  30. प्रत्येकम्
 

Answers: Lesson 11

#3
  1. नरावल्पं वृक्षमग्निमश्वाद्वहतः
    The men (two) carry the small tree to the fire from the horse.
  2. बालाश्वं नरं च वृक्षाल्लभते
    The girl takes the horse and the man from the tree.
  3. फलान्यश्वं वहतीति गुरुर्बाला वदति
    “I carry the fruit (plural) to the horse”, the teacher says to the girls (plural).
  4. गुरु अल्पं नरं वृक्षायाच्छीघ्रं गच्छतः (see 10.A.4 b)
    The teachers (two) go quickly to the small man from the tree.
  5. नरो वृक्षमग्निं बालाया अश्वेन वहति
    The man carries the tree to the fire for the girl by horse.
  6. बालाश्वमल्पां नदीं वृक्षान्नयते
    The girl leads the horse to the small river from the tree.
  7. नरो वृक्षान्फलेभ्योऽश्वेन गच्छति
    The man goes to the trees (plural) for fruit (plural) by horse.
  8. गुरुरग्निं नराद्गच्छतीत्यल्पा बाला वदति
    “The teacher is going to the fire from the man”, the small girl says.
  9. बालाल्पोऽश्वश्चाग्निं नराद्गच्छतः
    The girl and the small horse go to the fire from the man.
  10. अल्पेभ्यः फलेभ्यः सुन्दरेषु वृक्षेषु गच्छावः (no sandhi)
    We (two) are going among the beautiful trees for small fruit (plural).
 

Answers: Lesson 12

Dictionary Practice
  1. आत्मन् 135a
  2. Hetu 1303c
  3. योग 856b
  4. Pra-kṛiti 654a
  5. Jñāna 426a
  6. Ā-nanda 139c
  7. Vy-ākaraṇa 1035c
  8. ब्रह्मन् 737c
  9. गुरु 359b
  10. Rajas 863b
  11. Citta 395c
  12. ऋषि 226c
  13. विष्णु 999a
  14. hṛdaya 1302c
  15. पुरुष 637a
  16. Manas 783c
  17. शरीर 1057c
  18. Bhakti 743a
  19. अनन्त 25a
  20. कृष्ण 306b
    or Kṛishṇa 308a
 

Answers: Lesson 13

Dictionary Practice
  1. अन्वय -vyatireka 46b
  2. लघु -sattva -tā 894b
  3. Vi-vāha -kāla 987b
  4. Saṃ-skṛita 1120c
  5. कलि -yuga 262a
  6. Mūḍha 825b
  7. Saṃ-gama -maṇi 1128c
  8. Kshatriya -dharma 325b
  9. बाल -rūpa -dhṛik 729b
  10. Bhagavad -gītā 744a
  11. Mano -bhava -śāsana 785b
  12. Vi-veka 987c
  13. Saṃ-yoga 1112b
  14. Dhyāna -yoga 521a
  15. Adhy-āropa 23b
  16. Śraddhātṛi 1095c
  17. Hiraṇya -garbha 1299c
  18. पूर्व -paksha -pāda 643c
  19. Mleccha -jāti 837c
  20. A-gṛihīta 1309a
 

Answers: Lesson 14

    • mw60c अभय a-bhaya, mf(ā)n. … n. absence or removal of fear.
    • mw1a 3.a … having a negative or privative or contrary sense.
    • mw747a भय n.(√bhī) fear, alarm, dread …
    • mw758a भी 1.bhī, cl.3. P. … to fear, be afraid of …
    • mw642a Pūrṇa, mfn. … n. fulness, plenty, abundance
    • mw641a पूर (√pṛī, Caus.) …
    • mw648a पॄ pṛī, cl.9. P. … to fill … to sate, cherish, nourish …
    • mw677b Praty-āhāra m. drawing back … abstraction
    • mw677b प्रत्याहृ praty-ā-hṛi P. -harati to withdraw
    • mw663c Praty, in comp. before vowels for prati above
    • mw661b प्रति 1.prati, ind. (as a prefix … towards, back …
    • mw126a 4.ā (as a prefix … near, near to, towards …
    • mw1302a हृ 1.hṛi, cl.1. P.Ā. … _harati … to take, bear, carry.
    • Note: It is not the second dhātu हृ because of its meaning in translation; this is confirmed by the conjugational form harati given at mw677b.
    • mw8c A-cāpalya, am, n. freedom from unsteadiness.
    • mw1a 3.a … having a negative or privative or contrary sense.
    • mw393a Cāpalya, n. … agitation, unsteadiness, fickleness
    • mw393a चापल cāpala, n. (from cap) mobility … unsteadiness.
    • mw388b चपल capala, mf(ā)n. (√kamp … ) shaking, trembling
    • mw252b कम्प् kamp, cl.1. Ā. … to tremble, shake
    • mw396b Citra-karmanrma-vid, mfn. skilled in the art of painting …
    • Note: See 10.B.1: … if the prātipadika ends in -an, then the n is dropped …
    • mw396b Citra-karman n. any extraordinary act … painting …
    • mw396a Citra, mf(ā)n. … conspicuous, excellent, distinguished …
    • mw395b चित् 4.cit, cl.1. … to perceive, fix the mind upon, attend to …
    • mw258b कर्मन् karman, a, n. … √kṛi … act, action, performance …
    • mw300c कृ 1.kṛi … cl.2. P. … to do, make, perform, accomplish …
    • Note: It is not the second dhātu कृ on mw304a because its meaning given in translation is not appropriate to that kiven for karman.
    • mw963c 2. Vid, mfn. knowing, understanding, a knower
    • mw963b विद् 1.vid, cl.2. P. … to know, understand, perceive, learn …
    • Note: This has a more appropriate meaning than 4.Vid on page mw965a or its dhātu विद् 3.vid on mw964c.
    • mw523b
      • Nāti1 -mānin … (ni-tā, f., Bhag.)
      • Nāti-mānin, mfn. not too pround or arrogant.
      • Nāti (for na + ati …), not very much, not too.
    • mw523a 2.na ind. not, no, nor, neither …
    • mw12b Ati … prefix … excessive, extraordinary, intense, too …
    • mw810b मानिक mānika, mānita, 1.2.mānin. See page mw809, cols. 2 and 3.
    • mw809b
      • Māni -tā f. (ifc.) fancying that one possesses, imaginary …
      • Māni, in comp. for 1.mānin.
    • mw809c 1.Mānin mfn (fr. √man or fr. 1.māna) … haughty, proud …
    • mw809a मान 1.māna, m. (√man) opinion … self-conceit, pride …
    • mw783a मन् man, cl.8.4. Ā. … to think, believe, imagine.
 

Answers: Lesson 15

  • mw124b अहम् nom. sg. “I”.
  • mw232b एव ind. just so, indeed, truly, really.
  • mw3b अक्षय a-kshaya mf(ā)n. exempt from decay, undecaying.
  • mw1a 3.a … having a negative or privative or contrary sense.
  • mw328a 3. Kshaya m. loss, waste, wane, diminution, destruction, decay.
  • mw328aक्षि 4.kshi cl.1. P. to destroy, corrupt, ruin, kill, injure.
  • Dh.P. क्षि भ्वा॰ प॰ अ॰ ५ २ । क्षि क्षये ।
  • mw278a काल 2.kāla m. (√3.kal to calculate or enumerate) … time (in general).
  • mw260aकल् 3.kal … P. (rarely Ā) … to impel, incite, urge on …
  • Note: Of the four entries for कल, the first may be eliminated because it is ātmane-pada, and for the others the artha must be examined. The last is selected as being most suited to the dhātu meaning given in the original word काल.
  • Dh.P. कल चु॰ प॰ से॰ ४२ २ । कल क्षेपे ।
  • Dh.P. कल चु॰ उ॰ से॰ ४५ १ । कल आस्वादने ।
  • Dh.P. कल चु॰ उ॰ से॰ ४८ १ । कल गतौ सङ्ख्याने च ।
  • mw329a Kshepe m. a throw, cast … moving to and fro, sending, dismissing … delay, procrastination … insult, invective, abuse.
  • mw162a Ā-svādana n. the act of eating, tasting, enjoying.
  • mw347a Gati f. going, moving, gait … movement in general.
  • mw1128b Saṃ-khyāna n. becoming seen, appearance, reckoning, enumeration, calculation … measurement.
  • mw514a Dhātri m. establisher, founder, creator, bearer, supporter, arranger.
  • mw513bधा 1.dhā cl.3. P.Ā. to put, place, set … direct or fix the mind or attention upon … appoint, establish, constitute; to make, produce, generate, create, cause.
  • Dh.P. [डु]धाञ् जु॰ उ॰ अ॰ २६ २ । डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः ।
  • mw515a Dhāraṇa mf(ī)n. holding, bearing, keeping, preserving, maintaining … n. the act of holding, bearing … immovable concentration of the mind upon.
  • mw650b पोष-ṇa mfn. nourishing; n. the act of nourishing, keeping, supporting.
  • mw994c Viṡva-to-mukha in comp. for viṡva-tas, mfn. facing all sides, one whose face is turned everywhere.
  • mw994c Viṡva-tas ind. from or on all sides, everywhere, all round, universally …
  • mw992b विश्व mf(ā)n. (probably from √1.viṡ to pervade) all, every, everyone; whole, entire, universal, all-pervading, all-containing, omni-present.
  • mw989aविश् 1.viṡ cl.6. P. to enter, pervade, to be absorbed in …
  • Dh.P. विश तु॰ प॰ अ॰ ३६ १ । विश प्रवेशने ।
  • mw692c Pra-veṡa-na n. entering, entrance or penetration into …
  • mw819c मुख mukha n. the mouth, face, countenance … opening, aperture, entrance into or egress out of.

Reflections: In the West, time is viewed linearly, as beginning in some remote past and continuing to some unimaginable future; in the East, however, time is viewed cyclically: the cycle of day and night, the phases of the moon, the rotation of the seasons, the cycle of birth and death, and so on up to cycles lasting billions of years. That Time is indestructible is simply an acknowledgment of the fact that these cycles keep on tirelessly repeating.

In daily life, time is viewed as a subdivision of some convenient cycle (e.g. time of day), or as a multiple of cycles (e.g. years): this is the measurement or reckoning aspect. Time is inextricably linked with movement: if there was no movement there would be no time, for time is a measure of the change of position or state relative to some more durable “constant”.

In one sense time can be viewed as an effect of movement, as a measure of the movement; in another sense, time can be viewed as the cause of movement, as the underlying constant, relative to which movement takes place. In the light of the Vedic teaching, the latter view would be more appropriate: thus here Kṛṣṇa represents the Absolute Unmoving Consciousness within which all movement takes place.

In the second half of the line, “Providence” may be a better word to use than “Dispenser”: the latter has a sense of purposive action (i.e. seeking a result), whilst the former is more an impersonal principle. This is more in keeping with the artha of the dhātu as “nourishing, supporting”, rather than the active role of “creator, arranger” given for dhātṛ, and more appropriate to the universal aspect implicit in viśvatomukha. The all-pervading Consciousness thus provides the space, intelligence, and food for all beings: indeed It provides for their total sustenance and nourishment, even their very existence.

Taking mukha in the sense of “mouth”, it represents a two-way opening through which food enters, and speech exits; taking it in the sense of “face”, it may be interpreted as symbolizing all senses. Thus sarvatomukha could be viewed as the sum total of all senses, both active and receptive, through which all creation is nourished and through which Consciousness Itself is nourished.

Or again, sarvatomukha could refer to Consciousness as the Witness, and dhātṛ to the manifest appearance of that Consciousness.